Here is 2 types of Irrigation system in India and also importance of water for plants. All living beings need water to live. Water is very important for growth and development of plants, Flowers and seed.

Plants contain nearly 90% water. This is important method to save water while irrigation in field.that’s why we need good Irrigation system.

Importance Of Water For Plants

  • Water is essential because germination of seeds dose not take place under dry condition.
  • Water helps in some physical processes like photosynthesis.
  • Water is absorbed by the plant roots. It required for proper plant growth.
  • Nutrients dissolved in water and get transported to each part of plant.
  • Water helps to maintain the surface of plants.
  • Water protects the crop from both frost and hot air currents.

Types Of Irrigation System in India

  1. sprinkler irrigation system
  2. Drip irrigation system

Sprinkler Irrigation System

In this irrigation method ,Water is sprayed in to the air and it looked like rainfall for the plants. The spray is developed by the flow of water under pressure through small nozzles.

The pressure is usually obtained by pumping. Operating pressure ,careful selection of nozzle and sprinkler spacing the amount of irrigation water required to refill the crop root zone can be applied nearly uniform at the rate to suit the infiltration rate of soil.

Components Of Sprinkler Irrigation System

  1. A pump unit
  2. Sub main and laterals
  3. couplers
  4. Sprinkler head
  5. Other accessories such as valves, bends, plugs and risers

Adaptability

  • When water is limited
  • Uneven topography of land
  • Nursery of crops, Which required rainfall type irrigation
  • Sandy soils that have a high infiltration rate
  • Most field crops except paddy and jute

Advantages of Sprinkler Irrigation system

  1. Water saving to an extent of 35-40% compared to surface irrigation methods.
  2. This method is suitable for soils which have high infiltration rate.
  3. Land grading and land leveling is not essential
  4. Suitable for high value crops, especially the fruits and vegetables.
  5. nutrients can be applied with irrigation water, as per requirement of the crop, and hence increase the fertilizer use efficiency by more than 40%.
  6. Controlled application leads to higher application efficiency.
  7. Irrigation is possible in area at higher elevation than the source.
  8. Drainage problems eliminated.

Disadvantages of Sprinkler Irrigation system

  1. High initial cost.
  2. Efficiency is affected by wind.
  3. Higher evaporation losses in spraying water.
  4. Not suitable for tall crops like sugarcane.
  5. Poor quality water can not be used.
  6. Operating and maintenance require technical manpower.
  7. Pollination of crop is adversely affected.

People also read :Agriculture technology in India

2.Drip Irrigation System 

Drip irrigation is also known as trickle irrigation. In this technique water and fertilizer including chemicals can be placed at the direct disposal of the root zone with the help of specially designed dripper.

Water is applied continuously in the form of drops or spray through emitters placed along a low pressure delivery system. This system provides water directly to the root zone of the plant and maintains ideal moisture conditions for plant growth.

Components Of Drip Irrigation

A. Head control unit.

  1. Pump
  2. Fertilizer applicator
  3. Filters

B. Distribution network

  1. Mean line
  2. Sub line
  3. laterals
  4. Drippers

C. Accessories

  1. Gate valve
  2. Tee
  3. Elbow
  4. End cap
  5. Grommet take off

Advantages of Drip Irrigation system

  • Water saving
  • Enhanced plant growth and yield of better quality
  • Reduced salinity hazards to plants
  • Fertilizer and other chemical application
  • Higher efficiency of all chemicals
  • Reduced weed growth
  • Labour saving
  • Highly suited to poor soil
  • Efficiency in cultural operations

Disadvantages of Drip Irrigation system

  • High initial investment.
  • Clogging of dippers by suspended materials, salts-oxides of iron, organic material.
  • Interferes with farm operations and movement of implements and machinery.
  • Operational difficulties: Installation and maintenance.
  • Problem of theft, rodents etc.
  • Not highly suited to closed spaced crops like wheat, rice etc.

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