Everything about ORGANIC FARMING
Welcome to farmingocean, Let’s talk about all information about ORGANIC FARMING.
Agriculture has completed one cycle and is turning its phase. Green Revolution proves detrimental in five decades indiscriminate use of pesticides and chemicals for neutered the soil water and the whole ecosystem off late our farmers are looking back. Now we find organic movement everywhere but most of the farmers are in confusion about both the systems.
They question whether total organic is possible and feasible this blog will discuss the necessity possibility and opportunity of organic farming in detail agriculture.started along with human civilization but it was totally dependent on nature.use of chemical fertilizers started during 1850 itself in Western countries ,but in India chemical farming became popular with the Green Revolution which started in 1965 high yielding hybrids entered our farms.chemical fertilizers became inevitable to get higher yield from these hybrids this paved the way for indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers.
The scientific community supported chemical farming neglecting the possible bad effects of chemicals in the long run government departments promoted this on priority. It is true that this Green Revolution produced enough food for the nation but in due course of time pests and diseases started attacking the crops poisonous,pesticides entered the scene for crop protection the hazardous effects of these poisons were quite evident very soon soft topsoil started getting hardened due to chemical residues groundwater was polluted with nitrates sulfides and other chemical impurities.
The balance of nature was lost and pest attack ran out of control cabbage and cauliflower needed 8 to 10 sprays cotton needs 13 to 15 sprays and grape consumes 30 to 40 sprays in a season then imagine, the effect of chemicals consumers using.These produce and the farmer spraying these pesticides asides are affected with asthma allergy cancer and with many more health problems.
We lost rich biodiversity and balanced nature before we got alerted the volume of chemicals used has grown many times from 1965 into 2010 but the increase in production is only four times, even this increase is not just due to chemicals. Increase in cultivated area and irrigation contributed a lot of course.
Only chemicals are not the sole culprits excess tillage hybrids targeted Only towards high-yield genetically modified crops and varieties excess irrigation.Unseasoned crop cultivation on acclimatized crops and varieties tendency of easy crop production etc are also the reasons for the pathetic situation of today’s agriculture. GreenRevolution has become the war against nature but now we have lost the war theonly option left with us is to surrenderto nature again.
Let us study the ill effects of chemicals now crop and varietal diversity is lost due to the popularity of hybrids. Mono cropping is common everywhere quality of food has come down even though the production is more use of organic manures decreased with the application of high amounts of chemical fertilizers, hence the humours content of the soil has come down.
This affected the soil structure and hence the aeration. It led to the decrease of useful aerobicmicrobes in the soil. what our holding capacity of the soil and percolation of rainwater has decreased, runoff water reroded fertile topsoil absorption of nutrient was affected due to imbalance soil pH .Soil microbial activity is quite essential to make the nutrients available for plants destruction of soil micro flora badly affected the nutrient uptake by plants.
In chemical farming only twenty to thirty percent of the nutrients get absorbed. The remaining portion dissolves in the water quickly creating groundwater pollution chemical residues of the fertilizers accumulated in the soil making it useless for crop production, excess irrigation created saline and marshy lands decrease inorganic matter an imbalanced chemical nutrition led to micronutrients deficiency, due to mass destruction of useful predators and decrease in disease resistance of the plants.
Crops became easily susceptible to pests and diseases this increased the application of hemical pesticides again, even then the productivity is coming down year by year. Chemical residues like nitrates sulfide sand heavy metals have accumulated in soil water and crops ultimately the produce from chemical farming has lost its food value chemically.
Adulterated food led to serious health problems for consumers just born babies get diabetes, air turns gray by twenty years of age itself, cancer the most common deadly disease of today has a direct link with pesticide adulteration of the food .
Farmers have to purchase hybrid seeds fertilizers and pesticides from outside, hence the cost of production has gone up profit from farming became elusive this is the major reason for a sudden increase in suicide cases of farmers. The younger generations of farmers are searching for opportunities in cities. The government is announcing loan packages instead of attending to the real cause for the situation even millionaires have to eat food if the situation continues for a longer period.
Poor people may have to die due to hunger. Sustainable agriculture is the only solution for this complicated situation. The direction is very clear but reaching the destination is not so easy, however for the survival of 70 billion people on this earth. This u-turn is inevitable
Non chemical methods of farming
now let a study that non-chemical methods of farming again many new terminologies like organic, natural, zero tillage, sustainable biodynamic, Vedicagriculture etc have created confusion in the minds of farmers.
We have to find alternative ways of nourishing and protecting the crops after avoiding the usage of chemicals. The methods mentioned above follow different ways for this purpose the basic principles of all these methods are the same, that is using locally available natural inputs keeping away from chemicals and following nature .
Benefits of organic farming
We have compiled all simple ways of non chemical farming under the title organicfarming. Organic farming should improve the health of plants and other living creatures. It must enrich and protect biodiversity hence it is a broad-based farm management system. The main features of organic farming include optimum use and conservation of locally available natural inputs, increasing soil fertility over a period of time and protecting ,soil micro flora etc.
Organic farming should produce healthy food to feed and to protect the health of the consumers self dependence, for farm inputs will increase the profitability of crop production. If farming becomes a profitable occupation the migration of the population to cities will come down, thus organic farming can give a solution for destruction of environment, pollution and social imbalances.
Also many of us still have a doubt, whether this organicfarming will feed a hundred and twenty five crore people of the country to get the answer. One has to go through the production statistics of the pre GreenRevolution of Indian agriculture District Commissioner of Chengalpattu district of Tamil Nadu noted that during 1882, 85 the paddy yield was 40 quintals per acre but now with all chemical fertilizers and pesticides the same farmers are not getting even half of that yield.
It is true that the yield drops while changing from chemical to organic method but organic farming will increase soil fertility and hence the productivity in the long run even the pests and disease incidents will comedown. It is undoubtedly proved that the systematic organic farming gives sustainable higher yield, hence the agriculture scientists took a u-turn in recent years and are supporting organic farming movement.
Soil should be soft enough so that it can be opened by hand. It must have sufficient organic matter so that rain water percolates easily in scientific terms. Let the soil pH be between six point five and seven point five. Plants can absorb the nutrients only with the help of microbial activity. In very high or no pH soil microbes cannot survive or work efficiently.
This affects the availability of nutrients, absorption, seed germination and crop health etc, Other characteristics of good soil are more than 0.5 percent organic carbon 100 kilograms of nitrogen 10 kilograms of phosphorus and 50 kilograms of potash per acre in available form
Humus of soil
Humus of the soil is the food and shelter for soil microbes. High humus content improves the soil structure. It enables better soil aeration thus the plant roots and soil microbes get enough oxygen soil temperature remains under control.
Good volume of rain water percolates and hence the availability of soil moisture to the plant improves water holding capacity of the soil is more. It creates healthy soil microclimate which supports microbial activity, this condition is called as living soil ultimately the plant growth and yield improves produce from this kind of crop will have better nutrient content and taste.
IFOAM – World Federation of organic movement organizations and NSOP
IFOAM is the World Federation of organic movement organizations. This was established in 1972 in France . This has member organizations in most of the countries IFOAM sets the guidelines for organic farming at the international level. The Indian government formulated national standards for organic production or NSOP in the year 2000. It is mandatory to follow NSOP to get organic certificate .NSOP suggests growing crops and varieties which adapts and comes up well in the locality.
These crops must have pest and disease resistance organic farmers must protect and enrich crop and varietal diversity use the seeds from organically grown crops. If it is not available use chemically untreated seeds from the conventional crops. There is no objection for the cultivation of hybrids but genetically modified crops and varieties are not permitted.
It is advised to use the menu of plant animal microbial and natural origin chemical fertilizers, herbicides, hormones dyes and pesticides are strictly not allowed to be specific use. Organic manures such as farmyardmanure (FYM) ,poultry manure ,cow dung slurry animal urine, crop residues, green manures etc produced on organic farms, but human excreta is not permitted. Restricted use of inputs produced outside the organicfarm such as blood meal, bone meal, compost ,cow dung manure, fish meal ,city waste, earthworm compost etc is allowed after confirming the absence of chemical impurities.
like wise limited use of calcium and magnesium stone ,sulfate of potash rock ,phosphate , wood ash .,potassiumsulfate , sulfur, boron, iron, manganese ,molybdenum and zinc is allowed . Avoid burning of organic matter and destruction of forests take necessary measures for the conservation of soil and water . Use machines and implements used in chemical farming only after cleaning.
let us see the methods of supply of necessary nutrients
let us see the methods of supply of necessary nutrients in organicfarming in detail. The nutrient contentof various organic manures is like this
MANURE NITRIGEN PHOSPHOROUS POTASH
FYM 0.5 0.3 0.4
COMPOST 1.8-3.2 1.2-1.4 1.2-2.2
VERMI 0.8-1.5 0.4-0.9 1.0-1.8
POULTRY 2.0-3.2 1.8-2.0 1.6-1.7
production of organic manures is a big business . Now the producers of organic inputs must get organic input certificate only certified inputs are allowed in organic farming .These manures should have brown or black color and 15 to 25 percent moisture. It should not have any bad smell.These manures must have a minimum of 12 percent organic carbon, 0.8 percent nitrogen, 0.4 percent phosphorus and 0.4 percent potash . Carbon:Nitrogen ratio should be at least 20:1 and pH must be in between 6.5 and 7.5.
the methods of production and usage of various organic manures
Now let us know the methods of production and usage of various organic manures. Most of the traditional farmers use substandard manures in the Western got regions .This kind of manure pits of eight to ten feet depth are commonly since it is in an open place .It gets wet during drains and dries up under the hot Sun ,losing most of its nutrients excessheat accumulates in deeper layers due to lack of aeration useful aerobic microbes dye and manure becomes a heap of pathogens many or decays instead of decomposition.
This menu is of poor quality and is heaped on the farm well before its incorporation into the soil. The manure dries up and loses its nutrients here also , this substandard manure cannot give expected results.
Let them in your pit be of three foot depth protect it from rain water and direct Sun. It is better if the materials are heaped on the ground. Itself adding sheep and poultry manure, wood ash and dicot herbaceous with the farm wastes will improve the nutrient content of the manure.
Japanese method of composting
Japanese method of composting is popular for quick and good quality manure production. Here bricks are used to build up tank above the ground. Let the heigh tand width be three feet each .Length is according to your convenience. The main point is to have holes on the walls s for aeration. We can even use wood to save cost put fibrous materials at the bottom then put a layer of cow dung then spread dry leaves and farm waste in a layer spread cow dung again repeat these layers till the tank is full ,put dicot herbaceous and green material .
The top layer at the end cover it with fertile topsoil layer spread straw or dry leaves on the pit to avoid drying. Manure will decompose fully within two to three months in this method nutrient content of the compost from this Japanese method is better than the sunken pit.
Aerobic method of composting
This is the aerobic method of composting raw materials are heaped on the hard floor. Let the height and width of the heap be 5 to 6 feet each .Length is according to your convenience .Shade net is spread on the pen doll to avoid direct sunlight spread dry leaves, organic farm waste, dicot herbaceous, wood ash etc.
Unless wet each layer with cow dung slurry and water is better if neem and castor cakes rock phosphate, sheep and poultry manures etc are added. It is desirable to use organic matter decomposition microbial mixture for fast and better decomposition this contains nitrogen fixing and phosphorus solubilizing bacteria .
Micro riser for potash puritans fungus for fiber degradation and trichoderma for pathogen control. if This OMD microbial mixture is not available use compost which was prepared using such mixture or at least put a layer off fertile soil keep the heap moist by sprinkling water spreading cow dung slurry and panchghavya via will give better result .
Insert bamboo or perforated PVC pipe in the heap for better aeration compost will be ready for use within one and a half months itself in the Arabic method .Even coconut choir pith becomes good compost if OMD mixture is used but it takes three months time for decomposition. Most of the commercial organic manure producers follow this method use of 2 tonnes of this compost gives better result than 5 tonnes of conventional manures. We can get still better compost by feeding this to earthworms.
Vermicompost is very popular among organic farmers . There are two types of earthworms 1. one type of worm burrows deep in the soil and 2. the otherone lives in the topsoil
Top soil earthworms feed 10% of soil and 90% of organic matter. It eats equal to its body weight and puts out everyday earthworms add 30 to 40 kilograms of nitrogen per acre per year. Vermicompost is rich in growth regulators and hormones ,hence it is the complete manual vermicompost has egg cases too. If the farm has enough moisture content and organic matter earthworms developed from the eggs and produce compost there itself. We need not apply vermicompost again .
We may give vermicompost to all crops apply one ton of vermicompost for field crops. At the time of sowing or in the row later adding 1/2 ton of vermicompost to seed beds will improve the growth and health of the seedling then give half kilogram of vermicompost to each plant at the time of replanting and half kilogram after 45 days. Apply 5 to 10 kilograms of vermicompost per year to bigger trees pour water to the vermitanks and collect the drained water as vermi wash.
This is an excellent mixture of major and micronutrients growth regulators and hormones. Even it is a good repellent of pests and diseases. We can get excellent crop by spraying vermiwash
Vermicompost production method
Let us study this method of production of vermicompost, Now bigger earthworms from Africa are in use for this purpose vermicompost production capacity of these worms is much higher than our indigenous worms. It grows up to 5 to 6 inches and lives up to 2.5 years , It prefers 25 to 30 degrees centigrade temperature and 40 to 45 percent moisture.
We may feed these worms with dry leaves crop residues, sugarcane waste etc ,but avoid glareacedia flowers and tobacco plant, spray water and mix cowdung to the raw material and heat undershade for 3 to 4 weeks.
his partially decomposed material is fed to the earthworms if the fresh farm waste is given directly heat generated during decomposition may kill the worms. It is better to provide roof for vermicompost tanks to avoid rain and direct Sun normally tanks are built with stone or cement for this purpose.
However many farmers follow heap method like this under shade. Even portable vermitanks of this type are also seen it is advised to limit the width of the tanks to three to four feet and height to two to three feet. Length is according to your convenience provide a hole at the bottom of the tank to drain excess water ,put a layer of coarse material like coconut husk at the bottom of the tank .
This is necessary to drain excess waterand vermi wash then put a layer of organic waste four half feet height. Spread fresh cow dung or slurry on it put another layer of organic material. Repeat these layers till the tank is full then spread earthworms on the top at the rate of 25 worms per square feet.
If worms are not available, spread fresh moist vermicompost. The eggs in this compost will hatch to produce tiny worms but it will take more time to produce compost spray water to maintain forty to forty-five percent moisture . The compost will be ready within two to three months depending on the rawmaterial.
The worms go deep into the tank if water is not given for three to four days then collect the vermicompost from the top sieve this compost after drying excess moisture. Continue the production of vermicompost by spreading the rawmaterial again into the tank birds ants, rats and mice are the enemies of these earthworms.
It is better to put stone slabs or cement concrete to the floor of the vermicompost shed water channel around the wormy tank for spreading wood ash will avoid ants but do not use any pesticides for this purpose .Production of vermicompost is a rural commercial subsidiary activity. Now this can generate an attractive in come for small farmers and landless people.
Many big dairies sell vermicompost instead of dung to generate additional income. panjakavya for agricultural use is also becoming popular now.This is a Vedic concept we are giving a representative composition of panjaKavya out of many combinations in use take a plastic barrel or cement tank and put 3 litres of cow urine, 2 litres of cooled boiled cow milk, 2 litres of curd, 10 bananas, 3 litres of tender coconut water and 1 kilogram of brown jaggery dissolved in three meters of water.
In another barrel mix 5 kilograms of fresh cow dung and 1 liter of cow ghee mix the content of these barrels after keeping them separately for 3 days then keep it for 7 days. Keep on stirring the mixture once in a day with a wooden stick filter. This mixture through a net and keep the barrel covered with a cloth to the open top. This panjakavya may be used up to 15 to 20 days.
This is a rich mixture of micronutrients, hormones, plant growth regulators, and useful microorganisms. This is a good repellent of pests and diseases also panjaKavya may be sprayed to the crops or drenched to the base of the plant. It may be spread at the time of compost production. Excellent result is recorded everywhere with the use of Panjakavya.
Other method of supply nutrient
Let us know one more method of supplying nutrients ,mix 10 kilograms of fresh cow dung, 10 litres of cow urine, 1 kilogram of jaggery, and 100 litres of water in a tank or barrel. Use this mixture on next day with irrigation water at the rate of 500 liters per acre for spring mix 10 kilograms of cow dung, 10 litres of cow urine, 1 kilogram of jaggery and 10liters of water in a tank filter.
This mixture on the next day and spray to the crop at the rate of 100 milliliter per liter of water. Spraying this extract 2 to 3 times for any crop will give good result. We find biodigester in many farms in recent years. Locally available bridges are digested in a tank like this dicot plants and plants well known for pest and disease control are selected on priority.
Some farmers put mean cake sheep and poultry manure vermicompost etc ,in bags and immersed them in the same tank. Extract collected in the tank of the digester is filtered and given to the crop with irrigation water. Many farmers sprayed this extract directly to the crop according to the farmers experience this extract from the bio digester improves crop health and growth.
We find farmhouses and cattle shed at a height just next to the garden in Western Ghats region. Many farmers stopped producing farmyard manure due to labor shortage. transporting the mineral needs lot of manpower and leads to nutrients loss also, hence these farmers flow biogas slurry directly to the garden through pipelines.
Slurry is collected in a tank and diluted with additional water leaves straws etc are cleaned to avoid clogging of pipeline. This mixture flows to the garden by gravity slurry is put to the base of each tree with the help of hose pipes. Farmers without this benefit of slope use slurry pump. Slurry is transported in a tanker to the garden if the distance is more organic waste available on the farm is put around the tree base and slurry is poured on it.
Twice a year this may be called as in-situ manual production. Here the wastage of nutrients is very minimum. Earthworms become active and produce vermicompost. This method gives very good result if the moisture is maintained throughout the year in the garden. This method is termed as slurrygation
green manure is one more effective method of supplying nutrients. Leguminous plants are grown on the farm or outside and the herbage is mixed in the soil. This enriches the humus and nutrient content of the soil. It improves the soil structure also sunhemp, Dahincha, susbenia etc are the common green manuring species grown on the farm.
These plants are cut and plowed into the soil just before flowering. Adding green manures two to three weeks before planting of the main crop will give good result. Sunhemp is grown between rows of sugarcane, banana, mulberry etc. It is incorporated into the soil after four weeks. Blackgram, green gram, and cow pea are also in use as green manure crops.
Sunhemp, greengram etc are grown in open spaces of mango and other plantations. This helps even for weed control root knots of these leguminous plants, store Nitrogen. subabul, sanbania etc are grown outside the farm or along the fence. Herbage is cut and used as green mineral. Green manure in once in two years also brings excellent crop improvement.
Non edibel oil cakes
non-edible oil cakes are the rich sources of plant nutrients. Neem cake is not only useful for nutrient supply but also for pests and disease control. Castor and Pongemia cakes are the other cakes in use. Water Furnasola is becoming popular in recent years as a green manure and cattle field. Blue-greenalgae called anabaena present in the folds of leaves fixes atmospheric nitrogen.
Azolla provides 25 kilograms of nitrogen per acre in a season. It can grow and cover the whole water surface of paddy field in 15 days. It is puddled into the soil as green manure. One week before transplanting the paddy seedlings ,tank silt is lifted after the water dries up in summer and spread in the field. This is a popular practice in plains.Adding tank silt can give good crop for two to three years. Wood ash is also a good source of plant nutrients.
Bio fertilizer is another important source of nutrients. This is a mixture of microorganisms supplying plant nutrients by fixation or solubilizations. Rhizobium is the most popular bio fertilizer.
This bacterium lives in the root nodes of leguminous plants and fixes atmospheric nitrogen. Rhizobium plays an importantrole in dicot crabs like red gram, black gram, green gram, bengal gram etc and in oil seeds like ground nut and soyabean. Rhizobium fixes 20 to 40 kilograms of nitrogen per acre per season thus it meets 80 to 90 percent of nitrogen requirement of the crop naturally.
Rhizobium treatment in these leguminous crops will bring 15 to 30 percent improvement in yield. Apart from that size able amounts of nitrogen remains in the soil is utilized by the next crop. However the effectiveness of bio fertilizer largely depends on soil type climatic condition pests and disease management method. Fertilizer use strain of the microorganism and method of application etc.
Cost of Rhizobium
Cost of bio fertilizer is very less for seed treatment. It will be ten rupees per acre. Rhizobium is grown in the laboratory mixed with charcoal powder and supplied to the farmers prepare jaggery solution, smear the sticky solution on the seed spread the bio fertilizer on it and mix thoroughly. It sticks well on the seeds due to jaggery solution. Dry the seeds under shade and use it for sowing as early as possible. Seed treatment of the bio fertilizer is the easiest and effective meth
There are few more biofertilizers in use. As a tobacco is the free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria around the plant roots. It is beneficial for vegetables and all other crop plants use of this broad-spectrum. Bio fertilizer can bring up to 20% yield improvement in paddy, wheat, sorghum, maize, sugarcane, cotton, potato, sunflower and other. Crops as jute better can fix 10 kilograms of atmospheric nitrogen per acre in a season.
Apart from this it helps for better seed germination, more root proliferation, early flowering and maturity. Azetobactor is used by seed treatment dipping plant roots spreading to the soil or by mixing while preparing compost. Azetobactor synthesizes some plant growth substances like vitamin B, A, gibberellins, cytokinins etc and stores them in the soil which improves the crop growth.
Azetobactor produces some antibiotics substances which hinder the development of pathogenic fungi bacteria and viruses. It improves the availability of phosphorus also.
Azospirillum is another bacterium in use as bio-fertilizer. This is also a free-living nitrogen-fixing microorganism. Application is similar acetobacter as our spear alone gives good result in sorghum, minor millets ,maize, sugarcane and wheat. Apart from this nitrogen fixing bacteria VMI coryza is used to improve the availability of phosphorus, zinc, copper and sulfur.
This is a hair like primitive plant which lives in association with plant roots. It gets food from the plant and helps the plants to absorb water and nutrients the main constraint of vamp is that it cannot be cultured separately.
It needs to be maintained with host plant. Itself roots of these host plant is applied to add micro sir to the field phosphorus gets fixed and becomes unavailable to the plant at very high or low pH levels to make it available. Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria or PSB is in use this can release 12 kilograms of phosphorus per acre in a season.
PSB is effective for paddy, minor millet oil seeds. Dicot grams and vegetables this bacterium may be used for seed treatment dipping roots or spreading to the soil directly. 200 grams of PSB is necessary for seed treatment for medium-sized seeds like granite or wheat for small seeds.
100 grams of PSB is enough for root dipping method. Mix 1 kilogram of PSB bio fertilizer in 10 to 15 liters of water. Dip the roots of the seedlings in the mixture for five minutes and plant as early as possible. This dipping method is useful for transplanted crops like vegetables and paddy for spreading directly to the field makes three to five kilograms of PSB with 50 kilograms of farmyard manure and apply.
Keep any bio-fertilizer in a cool place without direct sunlight avoid contact with fertilizer or any chemical. Do not use any bio fertilizer after its expiry date. In Rhizobium there are separate strains for different crops. Using only the specified strain will give good result cover crops and mulching are becoming popular again.
You find creepers covering the whole area in this garden. EXAMPLE green herb ages are being spread in this banana plantation. The wastage of the same crop is spread growing cover crops. In rubber plantation is a popular practice. It is useful for weed control and soil and moisture conservation. Mulching increases soil microbial activity and hence the soil becomes living soil.
Decomposition of mulch adds organic matter to the soil .Percolation of rainwater improves selecting leguminous species for the purpose of cover crops is still better.
Agroforestry is the important component of organic farming growing useful plants and trees as live fence and in available free spaces provide organic matter for manuring. Wood for agricultural use and firewood, green manure and for the species are the better choice for agroforestry.
It provides food and shelter for honey bees and birds. Hence it enriches the biodiversity of the farm live fence is useful as windbreaker in banana plantation ,thus agroforestry is the integral part of organic farming .
Intercropping and mixed cropping
intercropping and mixed cropping are also some of the most important features of organic farming. Generally leguminous crops are intercropped with monocotcrops sorghum, red gram, cow pee, sugarcane, soyabean, maize, banana etc are the popular combinations planning.
These combinations depends on crop duration. Growth, nature, height spreading of roots etc. Dicotcrops improved the soil fertility part from crop yield. This improves the growth and yield of monocot crops. Monocropping leads to deficiency of micronutrients.
Multiple cropping systems are helpful even for weed pest and disease management. Likewise crop rotation is useful inorganic farming paddy crop in Kharif season and blackgram, green gram, cow pee etc. In Rabi season is a popular practice in traditional. Paddy are a leguminous crop in the crop cycle,
This improves the soil fertility and the next monocot crop gets the benefit croprotation helps to break pests and disease build-up ,also deep-rooted crops in the crop cycle bring nutrients from deeper layers to the top soil.
Deep and excess ploughing is not advisable inorganic farming. Unnecessary ploughing disturbs the soil structure and leads to soil erosion tilling is inevitable in annual crops but in plantations avoid inter cultivation and cut off the weed and use it for mulching. This helps for weed control and conservation of moisture.
It creates microclimate and adds humors to the soil. Excess irrigation is not good it leads to the depletion of nutrients. Apart from the wastage of water salts in the deeper layer of alkaline soil to upper-layer due to over irrigation and mix the soil salad.
Micro or sprinkler irrigation is better inorganic farming to maintain humid microclimate and for better decomposition of organic matter. Weed is not the enemy of crops. Some weeds bring nutrients from deeper layer of soil to the upper layer.
Cutting the weed before flowering is the better practice. We may use small rotary tiller for inter cultivation. Some weeds like touch-me-not and casiatora belong to the legume group . Which have nitrogen storage in root nodes to enrich soil fertility, until now we have studied the necessity of organic farming principles , nationalpolicy ,alternative methods of nutrient supply etc. THANK YOU.