In this article, we will be sharing with you all information about teak farming like land structure, plantation, harvesting, and some advantage, Disadvantage, and usage of teak wood.
Tissue culture teak I will describe how it grows, which land type is good, how much water it will need, and about the environment for teak. All details will be described.
Teak (Tectona grandis) is one of the most important hardwood timber trees of India and is distributed naturally in the peninsular region below 24oN latitude.
Teak forests are found in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh (small extent), Gujarat, Orissa, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, and Manipur.
The species is indigenous to India and the South-east Asian region.
Teak is a deciduous tree and can attain a height of more than 30 m. Young leaves are red in color but become dark green at maturity.
The inflorescence is large, flowers are white in color, producing sticky pollens for cross-pollination, and become inflated at maturity.
The flowers appear from June to September and fruits ripen from November to January. Teak sheds leaves from November to January.
Common teak Quick Facts
Varieties of teak wood(sagwan)
- Nilambur (Malabar) teak
- South and Central American teak
- West African teak
- Adilabad teak
- Godavari teak
The climatic requirement for Teak wood production:
- Teak prefers moršt, warm tropical climate. It can withstand extremes of temperature, but maximum & minimum shade temperatures of 39- 44 0 c and 13 – 170c respectively are the most favorable for its growth.
- It grows well in a rainfall zone of 1200- 2500 mm. Teak has been classified as a pioneer species.
- Hence, it requires a high light intensity for its growth and development.
Soil of teak wood(sagwan)
- Deep, well-drained alluvial soils, fairly moist, warm, tropical climate with pH ranges from 6.5 to 7.5.
- Teak is susceptible to soil degradation, therefore plantations should be developed on undulating and relatively flat sites, any slopes greater than 12o should be avoided.
where does teak grow
- Teak is native to South and Southeast Asia, mainly Bangladesh, Burma, and Thailand, and is commonly found as a component of monsoon forest vegetation.
- In tropical America, teak is introduced and cultivated for about 100 years. Guadua is native to tropical forests in Central and South America.
Leaves of teak plant
- Leaves are large, elliptic or obovate, 20 to 30 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, usually wedge-shaped at the base, with entire margins.
- The upper surface of leaves is rough and without hairs and the lower surface is densely covered with grey or yellowish hairs.
- Young leaves are red in color but become dark green at maturity.
- Flowers are numerous, short-stalked, and arranged in large, terminal, much-branched panicles 30 to 80 centimeters long.
- The calyx is small, broad, bell-shaped, and covered with stellate hairs, with sub-equal and spreading lobes.
- The whole calyx is ultimately enlarged, up to 2.5 centimeters long, and forming a membranous, blade-like covering to the fruit.
- Corolla is white, smooth, less than 1 centimeter across, with sub-equal and spreading lobes.
- Flowering normally takes place from June to September. Pollination is done by insects like bees, flies, and ants.
Fruits of teak plant
- Fertile flowers are followed by round woody globose drupe with four chambers, hard and woody enclosed in an inflated, bladder-like green spongy covering and 1.2-1.8 cm in diameter, ripening in winter.
- Fruits are pale green at first, then brown at maturity.
- Each fruit may consist of 1 to 4 seeds. Seeds are ovoid 6 mm × 4 mm, without endosperm.
Teak plantation spacing:
- Teak can be planted at 2m x 2m, 2.5m x 2.5m, or 3m x 3m. It can also be raised along with agricultural crops at a spacing of 4m x 4m or 5m x 1m.
Land Structure of teak wood garden
- Well First, I will tell you about the Land condition. Land height must be high, where the rainwater can’t log.
- If it rains heavily during the rainy season the water must not be logged on that land.
- The sky must be wide open. What is the BT plant? How we supply Burma Teak? We only supply tissue culture Burma Teak.
- Many companies sell seed culture plants as tissue culture, those plants don’t have good results. It doesn’t grow well.
Tissue culture teak wood(sagwan)
- How will you know if the plant is tissue culture or seed culture? Tissue Culture Plant.
- When we will supply tissue culture Teakheight will be between 8″ to 12″.After planting tissue culture teak under 6 months the plant will grow up to 8 ft. to 12 ft.
- in one year it will be between 20 ft. to 25 ft. in two years it will grow between 30 ft. to 35 ft.
- The diameter will be between a minimum of 1.5 ft. in diameter.
- In three years.it will grow between 40 ft. to 50 ft. This tissue culture plant has a specialty.
- There will be no branches in the lower area for the first two years. The plant directly grows upward.
- After growing 30 to 35 ft. branches will grow bigger The skin of teak stays as it is all time.
- The fiber of the plant doesn’t get affected by the skin. Tissue culture teak is very profitable.
- High-Profit Timber Plant. This plantation has been done by many farmers. In the old was of farming return was not much, so farmers are updating their farming techniques.
- Farmers are also finding new ways, alternative ways of cultivation of plants. Where they will get high profit. There are many plants like this.
Pruning and Thinning of teak plant
- Pruning should be carried out during the active growing season. All epicormic and branches should be moved 6 m inside during pruning, and any debris around the trees should be removed to protect trees from fires.
- Cuts should be kept clean, to avoid disease incidence.
- Thinning should be carried out to prevent competition among the trees.
- All forking and poorly developed crowns and stems should be removed, to create more space for growth.
Teak wood plant(Sagwan) maturity
- Teak MaturityIt needs a minimum of 20-25 years to mature. One tree can grow up to 70 ft. at maturity and the diameter will be between 3ft. to 4ft. at maturity
Teak wood plant(Sagwan) Profit in rupees(2021)
- If the height is 20-25 ft. and diameter is 3 ft. That tree can produce a minimum of 25-30 cu ft. of wood. One cu ft Teak wood price between INR. 1700/- to 2200/-.
Teak wood plant(Sagwan) Water system
- In Teak farming most important is on the plantation land water clearance system must be there all the time.
- If it will be deep lines will be very good for BT. The water clearance way between two lines of plants has to be done.
- The soil of the clearance way will be shifted to the left row and the right row. The plantation system made rows of plants.
- During summer or winter, the way will be filled with water for growing BT plants.
- Additional usage of the way during the rainy season, extra rainwater will be cleared through those deep ways.
- If the deep way is not there, if rain waterlogged or stacked, Teak can die. Teak Plants of any age will die.
Intercrop in Teak wood plant(Sagwan)
- The deep line way is most important. Now I will give details about intercrop plants with BT.
- Three plants can be cultivated easily. One is the Pineapple plant. The second is the Turmeric plant. The third is Ginger.
- This is the Pineapple plant. The pineapple plant will give production one time in one year. The second intercrop option is Turmeric Plant.
- This is Turmeric Plant. Turmeric plants also give good returns in a year.
Protection and management of teak plant
- Forest fire management should be planned, with a clear strategy for monitoring and suppression.
- In India, about 300 species of insects have so far been reported to be associated with teak.
- Teak defoliator (Hyblaeapuera and Eutectonamachaeralis) causes extensive damage to young plantations.
- Root rot due to Polyporouszonalis is also common in the plantation. Pink disease fungus causes cankers and bark flaking.
- Powdery mildew caused by Olivea tectonae & Uncinulatectonae leads to premature defoliation.
- Fresh leaf extracts of Azadirachtaindicawere found to be most effective against teak skeletonizer.
Is teak wood plantation profitable?
- Teak is indeed a very profitable venture. But bear in mind teak is a very long-term crop varying from 22 to 30 years.
- The fruit of your efforts will be realized only after the given time frame.
- Until then you will have to wait and make constant investments in your land in order to get high-quality trees.
Which country teak wood is best?
- Thailand teak wood
- Thailand teak wood is superior in quality to Burma teak wood.
- You read that right! Thailand teak wood is the highest quality teak wood in the world because the growth conditions for teak in Thailand are exceptional.
Teak wood plant(Sagwan) farming & Harvesting details
- First quality teak yields at 20 years of age, when the average diameter is 27.2 cm and average height is 23.2m.
Health benefits of Common Teak
- Skin health
- Overcome Anemia
- Wound Healing benefits
- Supports Hair Growth
- Beneficial for Haemoptysis
- Treats Gastrointestinal Disorders
- Treats Headache
- Treats of Anuria
- Beneficial for Bronchitis
Traditional uses and benefits of Common Teak
- Water from soaking the bark overnight is given for white vaginal discharge.
- Liquid from soaking bark powder in warm water is ingested for chronic diarrhea.
- Paste made from ground bark is applied topically to relieve bloating and edema related to gall bladder problems.
- Paste made from ground bark powder mixed with cashew nut oil, is also applied topically to relieve inflammation.
- Paste made from the ground bark, ground charcoal, and rice cooking water, is applied repeatedly to treat herpes.
- Bark, Wood, Fruit are used to reduce phlegm, cure gonorrhea, treat leprosy, alleviate bloating, and stop hemorrhaging.
- Pulverized wood is used on swellings.
Qualities of Teak Wood
- Easy Maintenance
- Strong Resistance to Insects and Termites Attacks
- Supports the Ecosystem
- Teak Wood Furniture – Advantages and Disadvantages
Benefits of using Teak Wood
- Aesthetic appeal
- Quite Strong
- Very Durable
- Natural resistance to termites and insects
- Heat moderation
- Resists rot and decay
- Can be hand-carved
- Quite heavy
Disadvantages of Teak wood:
- Very Expensive
- Hard to find high-quality wood
- Woodworking Tools get blunted
- Needs care (needs to be polished once in every couple of years)